Appendix 1: One-off escapes and non-established introduced species

 This section lists the non-native birds that have not established steady populations, probably involving one-off escapes from aviaries or wildfowl collections or intentional releases.

Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus
One bird flying around La Carolina on 4 January 2004.

Rose-Ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri
Several sightings in Jaén around the village of San José de Escobar (2004) and more recent records in the lower reaches of the River Rumblar and the town of Andújar, where it may breed. Also seen in Constantina.

Pheasant Phasianus colchicus
Sometimes deliberately released as a hunting species though it is not an established gamebird in the local hunting grounds. Birds have been sighted, however, in some sites of Seville, Huelva and Jaén. Probably these birds do not survive long even if they are not actually killed by hunters.

Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiacus
One record, published and accepted by the Rarities Committee, of two birds at La Atalaya Reservoir (Cazalla de la Sierra) on 25 January 2003.

Marabou Stork Leptoptilos crumenifer
From 22 March to 14 April 2001 two adult Marabous of unknown origin were seen at Rincón del Jándula.

Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata (and hybrid varieties)
Has been recorded on wide stretches of some rivers, such as the Odiel in Aracena (2006) or the final part of the Jándula (2010-2011), as well as the inlet waters of reservoirs like José Torán (2010), without being able to ascertain their exact genetic identity. Some of these sightings may correspond to stable feral populations..

Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata
Seen several times in the region: one bird shot by hunters on Rivera de Huéznar on 8 January 1981; a drake seen in a seasonal pond of Cerro del Hierro in the nineties; another drake on 12 December 2001 on a farm pool of Sierra de Andújar; and yet another on 10 December 2008 on River Jándula near Encinarejo Reservoir.

Barbary Dove Streptopelia risoria
From 2005 to 2006 there were at least two males in the urban park Arias Montano de Aracena, escaped from aviaries in the park itself. No records from this site since late 2006. Not known for certain if they bred but cannot be ruled out.